Understanding exposure is helpful to getting your exposure correct when you shoot the picture, and getting exposure right when you shoot is beneficial for subtle tonal values and good details in your images.
Randy Smith Photography © 2011.
Sailboarding across Portage Glacier Lake
This exposure has mostly deep blue sky and shadow in it. The light meter will be close to correct on this shot angle. I added +1/3 stop of light to keep my bright snow white. That exposure fit the Histogram Graph correctly with no clipping of highlights or shadows.
The bad news is when you adjust exposure of the jpeg file during editing, many of these adjustments in a bitmap editing application can be somewhat destructive to the original pixels of the image file. So naturally you want to get exposure right when you shoot in the jpeg format.
There are at least two photo editing applications from Adobe that allow you to edit jpeg files in a less destructive manor, they are Lightroom and Adobe Photoshop CS 4 " 5 " 6. Even with these editors, you must get good exposures if you want nice details and quality highlights or shadows.
The digital RAW file is similar to color negative film in dynamic range when editing in a RAW file editing application, which implies it is capable of recovering 2.5 stops more light in dynamic range then the jpeg image. But here too, correct exposure when you shoot supports higher image quality and definition of details.
Most modern color LCD screens on dSLR cameras are pretty good about showing image quality, which is helpful for making corrective adjustments while you shoot, and with a little practice you can learn to see how the light meter is going to react to the scene before you even shoot.
This is the goal of this page really, to help you with understanding exposure so you can avoid the limitations of the exposure reading.
Some of this exposure philosophy and information is kind of Old School. It is not outdated information by any means, to be able to handle all kinds of photography and situations every professional photographer needs to know how the light meter is reading the scene before they shoot so that they can interpret and make important choices about the shoot and or lighting, this is critical for the film photographer.
Now days with digital photography, the amateur photographer will rely first no the report of the LCD screen, and perhaps second on the Histogram. The histogram is the truth about the image you just shot. If nothing else, learn to read that correctly with regards to exposure luminance and recorded details of your scene. The advantage of the professional photographer is knowing how the light meter is interpreting the scene before they shoot, this allows them to solve problems before pictures are taken. Not mandatory in all situations, but critical in some.
Below we have three exposures. The first shot is just as the light meter suggested was correct. In the next two exposures, the dog is about the same size in the frame on both shots, and I know the light meter is going to look at this white fur and turn exposure down. The middle shot is in the shade, the other on the right is in sun light. Both of these shots benefit from a +1 stop Exposure Compensation.
You can judge the exposure of these two shots to the right by looking at the white fur details. The fur is white, but nowhere is any part of the white fur blocking up into solid white with no details. These are correct exposures.
The exposure on the left is wrong because white fur is not gray. The light meter chose to turn the exposure dark, so we are now in danger of loosing the subtle details in the black areas of the dog, this includes the eyes, one of the most important details of photographing animals and people.
Meter Reading M.R. +1 stop M.R. +1 stop
Image sensor & Exposure
The digital image sensor has millions photosites that record the voltage of one electron for each photon of light that hits a photosite.
The photosite has a limit to how much light it can receive. The photosite fills up with voltage a little like a well fills up with water, once water reaches the top of the well, that's it, nothing more can be stored in that photosite. This is called Clipping. Large reas in your photo that have this maxed out value of brightness are revealed as solid blocks of pure bright white, even though the natural light of the scene can extend far beyond these limits. What is bad about reaching these maxed out limits of the brightness value for the photosite is that the luminance data from it no longer represents the details in your scene, they don't represent texture, shape, or luminance. Large areas of this in your shots is useless, and they can't be adjusted during editing to mean anything other than a mistake in setting exposure.
The process of converting the electron voltage stored in the photosite into discrete data values means that this luminance record of your scene is averaged into a limited number of discrete little chunks of brightness values. These data values represent your total dynamic range of light within your shot of the scene, from black to white. The Jpeg file allows for 256 brightness values, while the RAW file records in excess of some +16 thousand smaller steps of luminance values. See Color Bit Depth when you are ready to learn more about this difference in the number of recorded luminance brightness values that represents the details of your image.
If the digital image is not exposed for the highlights carefully, when you try to adjust down the highlights in editing, the image can show a harsh edge along your brightest highlight where you could not record more light.
There is also a potential for clipping at the low end limit for recording details in your shadow areas, and if you want to learn more on this then let me direct you to the link What is CMOS.
These limits on the dynamic range of the image sensor is perhaps the biggest exposure concern for most digital photographers. How do I manage exposure my camera settings to keep the highlights or shadows from clipping, in cases where the dynamic range or the scene exceeds that of the image sensor's ability to capture it all?
But if your camera settings won't help you manage the dynamic range of the scene for the image sensor, you can decrease the dynamic range.
4 Ways to Decrease Dynamic RangeIf you want pictures that record only the full dynamic range of the scene where no clipping occurs, then you have to shoot scenes that display a dynamic ranges within the limitations of the Image Sensor. Which is the whole point about getting at the right exposure. The pro photographer will do one of four things to mange, and maximize the full dynamic range of the scene and potential of the image sensor.
Blinking Highlight Alert Flag
Found on most dSLR Cameras
FYI : You may know that you can set your digital camera LCD screen view to show a Highlight Alert in your images. This is a blinking that occurs on the screen in areas where highlights are being clipped in one of the three RGB colors in the highlights. This then serves as a warning that you might want to use one of the four above mentioned solutions to your dynamic range exposure problem.
Exposure & Dynamic Range
The Ideal Exposure
There are situations when it's okay to clip highlights. Specular light sources like the inclusion of the sun into the framed view is expected to be bright and lacking details, bright reflective surfaces that can also reflect the sun's without hurting the image appearance. So exposure for what you think is important details in the image, like shaping of light and texture details.
Sun in the Shot
There is a danger with looking at the sun while viewing through a lens. Perminate damage could be done to your eye because you are using the lens to focus that light intensity to a sharp point. The stronger the magnification of the lens the more intense and wide spread that damage may result.
If you want a shot to include the sun, use a tripod. Frame the scene and set exposure with the sun just outside of frame of view. When ready for the shot you can swing the camera on the pan head and take the shot. Live Video feature is also great for helping you shoot this more safely.
If damage can be done to your eye, it might also be possible that you could do damage to the image sensor when using the Live View feature for too long, do use caution.
The following are the three most common tools for used for exposure examination by the digital photographer. This page is going to try to help you use a forth tool, your finely tuned Judgement.
The light meter exposure reading is a quick reference ballpark suggestion of what to set the exposure at.
The Histogram Graph is the moss exacting tool to let you know how your details are being recorded in the image, and this page assumes you are already familiar with it's operation. Because naturally you check your exposure results after you shoot.
The LCD display of your image is the most obvious and natural way to examine your exposure results, and everyone is using this for sure, but this one can be hard to judge in bright sunlight if you can't see the scree well.
Light Averaging, the Exposure meter's objective
The exposure meter takes into account all the illuminance values it see's in the scene as you have framed it. It only reads in accordance to the metering mode you have chosen to use. Some of these metering modes read percentages of areas of greater importance from narrower angles of view from the center of the frame. It averages these brightness values giving you back an exposure for a middle tone value for your shot, and just for that specific meter reading area.
As long as what you are photographing actually does reflect a middle tone value, your exposure is perfect.
Middle GrayThe middle tone value is a luminance brightness value that is half way between pure black and pure white.
Reflective light meters are calibrated to return a correct exposure for the middle tone value, a value half way between the brightest white and darkest black. This value is often referred to as 18% Gray, which is a term more associated to the publishing industry and reflectance values of inks on printed papers. Your camera meter calibration is likely just a bit darker than this middle 18% reflected value.
This graphic is displaying only a small collection of the reflective values taken from the center of the image senor's recording range. The image sensor records a range of about 7 stops of light and only 2 2/3 stops is represented here.
What all this means to you as far as an exposure is concerned is, reflective light meters read white walls the same as they would black walls. They provide different exposures for these two scenes to be sure, but both of those exposures placed by the light meter will be recording the wall as a middle tone value.
If our wall example was a B&W image, the wall would be recorded as a middle gray tone. What tone is the wall, white or black? If you have ever taken a picture on snow, one of your first impressions is, "Why is the picture so dark?". The opposite thing happens on the black sandy beach, those pictures may have the appearance of being over exposed.
If your wall is not a middle tone value then don't shoot it as one unless the light of the scene, or dynamic range of the scene, demands it.
How much correction is desired?
Simple Answer: Place them where they look nice!
How to gage how much exposure correction is needed is the main part of the challenge.
To being with, some correction that is applied is better than none. You will see an improvement within the image of the next shot where correction has been applied. Here is a few basic guidelines that will get you started.
Guidelines for Correcting Exposure
Exposing for the Subject
"Shooting the Light", Exposing for Artisitic Appeal
First we will explore as a measure of exposure control, the practice of exposing our subjects for their natural reflective light qualities within the scene. This involves learning about the light meter, and how it reads a scene for exposure.
This gray card is the Middle Tone Value that the light meter is calibrated to return an exposure for. Learn to visualize this tone in your mind so that you can compare it against objects you want to photograph. It's easier to do then you might fist think.
As stated above, scenes with a dynamic range that is equal to that of the image sensor's, about seven stops, tend to leave no room for adjustment before you start clipping at the foot or the shoulder of the dynamic range, so some highlights and or shadows can become endangered of being clipped. So here, if you want to make an adjustments, it should be vary small. Low dynamic range scenes like that of a cloudy day offer more room for adjustment of exposure.
The more you crop tighter in on a subject that reflects one general tonal value, then the more you will want to pay attention to what tonal values that subject really is. If your subject is a Kodak Gray Card, what the light meter was designed to read correctly, then you can expect a correct exposure of a middle toned subject.
If your subject is white swan that fills the frame, then the light meter will return an exposure for a dark looking middle gray white Swan. In an exposure like this, if the Swan is evenly lit, then you may need a correction to your exposure. Shooting this as metered and then trying to adjust this in editing might mean that some of the more subtle tones in the image may not look as nice as they would have had you adjusted your exposure during the shooting process.
The Canon's Partial Metering mode will be use throughout this page so that it is easier for you to follow how the light meter is reacting to the exposure, and how I am making exposure corrections to compensate using the Exposure Compensation function on the camera. This central weighted metering mode will be reading an area of the viewfinder of around the seven auto focusing squares in the middle, an area of about 8-12% of the total frame. This area of meter reading sensitivity consideration feathers out fairly quickly towards the edges of the viewfinder.
Your exposure reading is not only influenced by the brightness range of the scene, but it also by the total area each of these brightness values take up within the scene.
Canon 5D MkII Viewfinder, Meter Reading Area
A light meter reading like this has a narrower field of view then that of the whole viewfinder. This gives you the option of selecting what part of the scene should have more importance for exposure consideration.
More importantly, what I use this narrow angle of view for is to exclude areas in the scene that might confuse me, and keep me from getting my main reflective subject or area in the scene exactly where it should be in the scene where I want it.
Remember that if you get the correct reflectance recorded for one object in your scene then the rest of the scene's reflective values will also fall into place being exposed correctly. This is true provided your scene's dynamic range does not exceed beyond that of the light sensors ability to record all of that light.
So with a narrow angle of view for the meter reading, I am reducing the number questions I have to ask myself.
In this first example below, I momentarily move in closer to the subject of the wood carving and then take a reading. I am filling the light sensitive meter reading area with just my primary subject to get a good base exposure. I am including the highlights, middle tones and shadows in this reading of the subject. The black background is being excluded from the light metering area. As just mentioned, this simplifies my understanding of what the light meter is reading.
This sculpture is a medium dark toned subject. The light meter will try to make this subject appear lighter than it really is, by rendering an exposure for a middle tone value.
To correct the light meter reading, you just need to dial a little negative exposure correction to place the tonal value of that subject back where it can resemble it's true medium dark toned appearance.
Image of wood sculpture, Artist : Mary Virginia Smith
In the picture of the Wood Bust carving, two different exposures are presented of three images.
The first image on the left was taken using only the exposure reading straight from the light meter. I move in close so that light meter would read only the light from the carving. But the carving is a nice rich dark warm tone, and is not a medium tone value where the light meter will place it. If you examine the highlights of this first image on the left, they are blowing out, over exposed, and this exposure makes the lighting look flat, loosing some of the drama and emotional quality of the light.
The second and third images are the correct exposure. The rich warm tones of the wood are showing the carving's true nature. The highlights have detail to the last peak brightness, and the black in this image are holding with no loss of pixels data (clipping), this includes the dark tones on the black velvet.
In the third picture, I placed a Kodak Gray Card in the shot for your examination so that you could see a true middle tone value under that same light and exposure. Note that the gray card tone value is just where it should be exposed, it is a true middle gray. There is a difference of about -1 1/3 stops of exposure here between image #1 and #2.
How did I set the exposure? I guessed at it.
Pretty easy, huh?
I envisioned a middle tone value in my mind, and compared that with the true reflective tone of the natural wood of the carving. I anticipated a little more than 1 stop difference in darker tone for the bust carving, so I reduced the cameras metered exposure by that amount using exposure compensation on my camera.
Not vary scientific I know. But when shooting photography you will be spending much of your time working with the esthetics of light as a technician and artist. I'm going to show you how I look at a subject or a scene and make a close guess and applying that to exposure compensation, to get from the light from the scene, to what I want.
There is a technically correct way to get a the right exposure of this scene with your camera, and that is to take an exposure reading off of an industry standard Kodak Gray Card, that we read under the same light that your subject is under. In a studio setting this would be common practice. Some people might use an incident light meter which can return the same exposure. What we are doing with the Gray Card, is giving the light meter the exact reflectance value it was designed to average light for.
This practice of metering from a gray card and then transferring the exposure meter reading to our scene, allows dark objects to be dark and light objects to appear light, so all objects are photographed with their natural reflective values based on the light of the scene. There are specific handling practices to follow to help you get consistent results, see the link Photography Light Meter for some guidelines. Or when you buy a gray card for your use, it will come with instructions on how to use them.
Getting back to our example
I just guessed at my exposure. I could be off by about 1/3 stop, or 1/2 stop from time to time. If I am, I can still take another shot after making an adjustment to exposure. The point is, my judgement of the exposure is likely to be closer to what I want from the scene than what the light meter is going to offer. So you can do this also, make an educated guess on the first shot, you will imporve with practice and in the future miss fewer shots.
The reason I did not use the gray card for setting our exposure in this example is because you likely are not going to have a gray card with you in the field when you are shooting, and many times you will not be able to stand with the gray card where you need to be in order to read the light that is actually falling on your scene. You need to be in the same light as your scene is lit by when using a Gray Card exposure reading.
We have already mentioned the important points at how I got this exposure, but let's go over the process.
Let the camera meter reading serve as a base exposure, then you apply your own rational interpretation of what the meter is reading, and how it is influenced by the scene and why, then deviate from camera's base exposure for your exposure correction.
It is a mental exercise I am presenting here that requires some practice, but it will become easier, and every good photographer develops some method of intuitive judgement of how their camera is going to read the scene, and they will make judgments based on their own experience.
With an image like the bust carving above, there is two major reflectance areas, the wood tone and the black background. I simplified my decision making here by excluding the dark background. What if I could not get any closer to this subject to read light directly off the subject. The light meter would have seen some of that dark black background. This would result in the light meter trying to give me an exposure that was even brighter than what I showed you in the first picture on the left. So my intuitive correction for this scene would have to consider just how much of that black background was influencing my metering area. I would have to add more negative correction to the exposure.
Lots of the scenes you will be shooting will have many natural middle tone values scattered throughout the scene. Those tones are not often gray. A middle tone value can be present in any color. Concrete, grass, some foliage, north blue sky are all brightness values vary close middle tone values.
I sometimes make it a game of it if there is nothing around I am inspired to shoot. I frame a shot, look at the tonal values of the scene and imagine how much the light meter is going to be effecting my exposure because of the dark tree to the right, or the bright snow to the left, and how much area do these subjects take up, and what area of my view finder is the light meter making judgements from.
After I got a guess, I just apply the exposure compensation to place real subjects in the scene at their correct reflected values.
It will help to know where middle gray is placed on your Histogram Graph. Let's go over that, and give you a feel for how much room there is for adjustment while adjusting exposure.
learning to place reflective tonal values
We have already shown this graphic on the link Histogram Graph. Your image sensor can record light +3 stops above middle gray, and -3.5 stops below middle gray. In all you have about 7 stops of light before clipping at both ends.
This histogram graph shows the camera meter's interpretation of a white towel.
In the background of the histogram is a picture of the white towel.
This histogram bell cure is from an image of a white cloth towel, you can see the white towel in the background of this Histogram. It has some texture in the stitching and so the histogram curve is showing you not only the middle averaged tone for this towel's brightness, but also the ends of the toe of the curve reflect the subtle brightest and darkest values in the metered area.
This is a low contrast scene. Not because it's dark, but because the histogram graph does not stretch out to pure white and down to the pure black.
In the graphic bellow. I shoot multiple exposures of this same towel. I am adjusting exposure at 1/2 stop increments, so that I can see where these adjustments fall on the histogram and how they are spaced appart.
These Histogram curves were taken from multiple shots at 1/2 stop increments and superimposed on this one histogram so that you could see how the placement and shape of the graph for this same subject in those different exposures. This suggest the limits of over and under exposure that we can apply before we loose details due to clipping.
We already know from experience that a 1 stop adjustment in exposure can be performed by adjustment of shutter speed, aperture or ISO settings. This changes the exposure by twice the light or by half the light. So your subject tones within the scene will be effected by becoming twice their brightness, or half there brightness as rendered by your exposure adjustments.
If you shoot a picture of a gray card using an exposure that is +3 stops over exposed, you will have no details of the gray card, it is pure white. If you shoot a gray card at +2.5 stops over exposed, and you have carefully lit the card perfectly evenly with light, you should have details of the card without clipping at any of the brightest specks of reflection. In essence that gray card will look just like a white card in your photograph.
You actually know now, the high end limits of brightness adjustment.
Positive Exposure LimitFor all pictures you shoot that you use your light meter to average the light of the scene, no shot will ever likely need more than +2 of exposure compensation.
If you shoot a scene of just snow in it with no other tonal values, then about +2 stops of light is as far as you want to go with exposure compensation. Remember you don't want any good details in the image to be effected by clipping.
Influence of Dynamic Range on Exposure CompensationFor scenes of low contrast or dynamic range, you have about ±2 stops of adjustment room for changing exposure above or bellow middle gray.
As the scene contrast goes up, or the scene has a broader dynamic range, you have less room for exposure adjustment, so exposure compensation adjustments might have to be kept smaller. Your exposure adjustment limit is when you start clipping the highlights of your natural scene.
If you look back at the above graphic of multiple histogram peaks, you can see that there is about -3 stops of adjustment room for this low contrast scene before we start clipping our shadow details.
If you are framing your picture of a Black Bear close up with a strong telephoto, your camera's meter is going to want to lighten up the image base on how much area in the frame the black bear actually fills.
This can be a little challenging and maybe imitating at first. But it is easier if you know what light metering mode you are using, and just what portion of the viewfinder is reading light, and what percent of sensitivity that part the of the viewfinder is.
Negative Exposure LimitsFor vary dark toned subjects, usually no more than -2 stops of exposure compensation is ever needed from middle gray.
One danger that I hinted at above is, if you ever have to pull up the shadows during editing, you can run the risk of bringing up the Noise levels in the darkest regions of your picture, and you don't want that.
It is easier to pull good details down into the dark shadows during editing then it is to try to reclaim details from an image that was shot too dark to begin with.
You saw where the exposure bell curve peaks ended up on the histogram graph in the above diagram. This diagram shown below, shows you where those peak values are relative to the brightness values of histogram graph. These increment marks are at ±1 stop, and each mark represents a position on the graph that is twice or half as bright as it's neighbor. The green bar area is where the light meter tries to average light for every shot you shoot, it's the middle gray exposure.
By looking at this graph you can pretty much guess where you would like to see your subject's reflective tones placed when making a exposure correction. It does not matter much what brightness values your subject is, that is to say, if you place one item in your scene at the correct brightness value for that scene, all the rest of the brightness values are corrected for also.
You might have important bright highlights, or deep shadow details that need a little special attention, and so you might want to temper some of your adjustments to protect these areas. As mentioned before there are situations where your scene could have a larger dynamic range then your image sensor is capable of capturing, so in these cases we hold back on the amount of adjustment in order to protect those valuable shaping details.
A white swan on a sunny day might need only about +1/2 stop of light adjustment. On a cloudy day it might need about +1 1/3 stops of light added.
If you are photographing a relatively wide view landscape of the surrounding environment, like tall trees, ground, mountains without snow and not much sky present, you might think there is too much here to consider, how can I narrow my interpretation of this exposure. You may not have to. Most of these subjects are commonly close to middle tone subjects. The light meter averages all this for you and may give you exactly what you want.
Most common landscape reflective valuesMost objects in Nature have reflective values withing ±1.5 stops of the middle tone value.
Look at the scene and imagine the middle tone value, if your scene appears brighter than that to you, then add some exposure correction, if the scene seems darker than the middle tone, then reduce exposure.
People in pictures are a vary important subject matter. Skin tones around the world are mostly within ±1 stop of the middle tone values. You can take a bust shot picture of a person with vary dark skin and expose their skin as a middle tone value and be quite happy with the results of the image, especially if they take up most of the framed view. The farther back you are from them, the smaller they will be in the framed view, and if you have a broad dynamic range for a surrounding scene, then you'll want them placed closer to their natural reflective value, because the scene is also needs to be considered for exposure. A vary dark skin toned person will look just fine at -1 stop exposure.
Remember always to examine your histogram graph after the first image to make sure you are not clipping valuable brightness details that are needed in the scene. If you like what you see, and you continue to shoot from the same direction and cropping, and if the light is not changing, then there is no reason to readjust your exposure, concentrate now on composition and the action of your subject.
let's run though some examples so you can see how I might apply some exposure compensation. Then after that all you got to do is play a game of walking around, frame a shot, let the camera tell you the metered exposure, and then try to guess how much correction will be needed in exposure to insure the brightness values in your scene match exactly the same tones and colors that you see with your eyes, or what you desire from the shot.
LCD screen brightness setting
Your camera should be set to it's factory settings. If you made adjustments by brightening up the screen then you might want to set them back to the mid position so that you are not overly influence by those settings.
A comment on the middle gray value placement on the histogram
Most digital cameras, if not all of them, have their camera meters calibrated to be a little bit under the true middle tone reflectance value. This is the reason the digital camera exposure meter's middle tone value is just a bit to the right from the middle position on the histogram graph. This difference is about 1/6 of a stop of difference in exposure, it is not much of a relative issue of concern since smallest exposure adjustment is 1/3 change in exposure.
The true middle tone value between black and white is a brightness value of 127 to 128. If you divide 256 brightness levels as is in the 8 bit jpeg image by 2, you get middle brightness value of 128. Your camera's middle tone value will likely show up as a brightness value of 118 to 120. Different camera makes might have a slightly different meter calibration.
Exposure Example Simmulations:
In these examples I picked up a little finger puppet to help us out. He is a practical toy for an adult to play with so don't be too embarrassed if you pick one up yourself. You can always use the following excuse.
Ping is just a puppet, so it can hang out in your camera bag. You can easily pull him out when you want to practice shooting under different lighting situations and scenarios. After all we are building a skill here so that you can be ready when the real live critters are around. Of course were not just talking about brightness tones on fur here, it is the luminance of any subject matter, and recordig their details is what is important.
Abbreviations used in examples:
E.C. = Exposure Compensation
M.R. = Meter Reading
You can practice using these techniques on whichever light metering mode you wish. Your camera manual will show you a diagram of what area of the viewfinder that the light meter will be sensitive to.
I used this light metering mode for all eleven examples on this page
This is the view finder sensitivity I mapped out for my camera's Metering Mode.
Mapping out your own light meter reading area is not something you have to do if you don't want to, your camera manual may serve you well enough with a graphic example of where the meter is reading from.
If you are curious how I tested my meter, I took a large white panel and glued a small flat black circle of paper in the middle. As you pan around with your camera lens in a tight crop, while on Auto exposure, you can see when the exposure meter is changing the exposure setting. It is important to have your flat panel vary large and evenly lit for this test.
If you have found that getting the correct exposure result has been a bit perplexing, then put into practice this activity of seeing what the light meter is reading. Be aware of the area the meter it is reading in the viewfinder, and know that the light meter is programed to provide a middle tone exposure for what it sees. This should be all the clue you need to alert you to what kind of accuracy you might expect from your exposure reading. You then consider the real reflective values of your main subject in your scene, and compared those to the middle tonal value. Then use Exposure Compensation to place those values where they should be for the best success of the image.
Light is the inspirational motivator of photography. With more careful analysis of exposure, you will find yourself beginning to experiment more creatively. You can set exposure to saturate colors, or pastel them. Before long, light will become one of the main subjects you are shooting, and not so much object centered pictures. The added confidence you gain by understanding exposure will empower you to explore more with your photography.
& Slow Shutter Speed
And Story behind it!
Well thought out. Good information and easy navigation, this is Good stuff!
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Your guides and tutorials contain lots of great information for new users. You have a winner.
You are obviously very knowledgable and experienced, and it is fantastic that you are willing to share this with others, I appreciate it, thank you!
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